Friday, September 4, 2020
A Tale Of Two Cities Notes Essay A Tale of Two Cities Book I (Chapters 1 4)SummaryIt was the best of times, it was the most exceedingly awful of times, it was the time of knowledge, it was the period of silliness . . .Dickens starts A Tale of Two Cities with this celebrated sentence. It depicts the soul of the period wherein this novel happens. This period is the last piece of the 1700s when relations among Britain and France were stressed, America announced its autonomy, and the workers of France started probably the bloodiest insurgency ever. So, it was a period of freedom and a period of horrendous brutality. Dickens depicts the two urban areas at the focal point of the novel: Paris, a city of luxury, blue-blooded maltreatment, and different shades of malice that lead to insurgency and London, a city overflowing with wrongdoing, the death penalty, and confusion. In the two urban areas, the abilities of a furious crowd were a perilous thing, to be dreaded by all. The story starts on a street among London and Dover (in southern England) in 1775. Three outsiders in a carriage are going along this perilous street. The carriage experiences a delivery person on a pony who requests one of the travelers, Jarvis Lorry of Tellsons Bank. They are careful, on the grounds that the courier could be a bandit, looter, or other bothersome. In any case, Mr. Lorry adventures out into the downpour to get the message. He perceives the errand person as a man named Jerry, who works for Tellsons Bank, too. Jerry advises him to sit tight at Dover for the youngster. Lorry advises Jerry to transfer to the individuals at the Bank this message: Recalled to Life. Jerry has no clue about what it means and heads out into the downpour. Dickens at that point contemplates how the core of an individual is a genuine riddle. Lorry can tell who or possibly of what class the two different travelers are. Going on, Lorry naps all through dreams. His fantasies uncover to the peruser that his strategic to allegorically uncover a man from underneath the grave. He longs for fanciful discussions with this man he is to review to life. Covered to what extent? Lorry consistently inquires. Very nearly eighteen years, answers the man. Lorry acquires the man his fantasies to see a lady (the young lady of which Jerry the errand person talked). In any case, the man doesn't have the foggiest idea whether he despite everything wishes to live or on the off chance that he can stand to see the youngster in the wake of having been covered for eighteen long years. After showing up at a hotel in Dover, Lorry sits tight for the youngster. Here the peruser discovers that the sixty-year-old Lorry is a sharp looking agent who works for Tellsons Bank. Tellsons has an office in London, and an office in Paris. Lorry is over each of the a man of business, and attempts to lessen everything to business terms. At the point when the youngster shows up, Lorry goes to see her. She is Lucie Manette, a seventeen-year-old vagrant. Lucie accepts that she should go to Paris with Lorry on the grounds that Tellsons Bank has found something in regards to her dead dads little piece of property. In any case, Lorry anxiously comes clean with her: Her dad was a notable researcher in France, whom Lorry knew while working at Tellsons French office. Lucie enigmatically perceives Lorry since he carried her to London numerous years prior when she was stranded and Tellsons Bank was placed responsible for her. Lucie is stunned when she discovers that Tellsons has discovered her dad alive in Paris. He was detained in the Bastille (a well known French jail) for a long time, yet nobody knows why. Lorry brings in the workers, and a solid, curt lady (who we later find is Lucies hireling and who basically raised her) comes in to deal with the youngster. CommentaryThe two urban areas are essential to the advancement of this novel. Both are vicious urban areas overflowing with treachery. The characters travel between them all through the novel. The urban communities give two particular settings, each with its own privileged insights and hazards. The significant topics of this novel are restoration and upheaval. The first of the two topics is presented in this segment.
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
The Bourgeoisie and Proletariet papers The bourgeoisie and proletariet have the two likenesses and contrasts in their rise and advancement as a class. The two of them rose out of a different society and built up their own. The bourgeoisie became out of the primitive society and the need to build up a cutting edge industry. The proletarians became out of the bourgeoisie society and their requirement for change and security. The two of them have to have concentrated force all together for every general public to develop. The bourgeoisie has brought together their methods for creation and has gathered property in a couple of hands (p. 13). The proletariet has framed worker's organizations so as to acquire power. Both these activities host framed political gatherings. The distinctions among these two classes are extraordinary. The bourgeoisie individuals are consistently deprived for development and change. They are continually upsetting their methods for creation (p.12). They are an autonomous society. With their improvement of a cutting edge industry they have brought a wide range of social orders all through the country to rely upon them (p. 13). The proletarians are then again extremely subject to the bourgeoisie for endurance. Without them they couldn't exist. The common became out of the bourgeoisie's misuse of the working worker. Without the steady improvement of present day industry the common would not have the option to work and their predicament would be no more. With the improvement of present day industry the ordinary not just increments in number, it gets amassed in more prominent masses; it's quality develops (p. 17). The proletarians own no property while the bourgeoisie own enterprises (p. 20). Every one of these battles depicted in the Communist Manifesto are as yet going on today. The cutting edge bourgeoisie are the Microsoft companies of the world. The proletarians are the average workers associations. Very little has changed from 1848 till now. ... <!
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Test case Australian Beverages Limited Pre-seen data Semester 1 2010 Australian Beverages Limited Ã¢â¬ Pre-seen data A. Prologue to Australian Beverages Limited Ã¢â¬ March 2010 Australian Beverages Limited (ABL) initiated soda producing in 1937. During the 1970s and 1980s, the organization extended its refreshment portfolio by going into other non-mixed drink classes, for example, foods grown from the ground based beverages. Passage into the nibble food advertise was as of late attempted in light of declining utilization of carbonated soda pops (CSDs), the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s conventional region of business quality. This move likewise empowered ABL to use its solid conveyance abilities to markets, accommodation stores and neighborliness channels by including adding such correlative food items to non-mixed refreshments. By and by, CSDs still represented 90 percent of organization income in 2004. Tom Dwyer, the current overseeing chief, has been with the organization since 2005. He joined the organization when CSD development was deteriorating and investor trust in the organization was disappearing. This had brought about the offer cost declining by 15 percent in the two years before his arrangement. So as to reestablish investor certainty, Dwyer built up a key arranging group inside the organization to evaluate the present item portfolio and distinguish natural and procurement development openings. From this audit the significance of operational greatness was recognized and solid speculation was made in world class fabricating offices and frameworks. Procedure re-building was actualized to decrease expenses of production and time to showcase. Having finished the joining of a nibble food business obtaining a little more than a year back, Dwyer is presently mindful that he needs to recognize further development alternatives given anticipated proceeding with decrease in the CSD showcase. In January 2010 he asked the vital arranging group to attempt another point by point survey of chances for future development, explicitly distinguishing items and markets where the organization would have the abilities for effective section. Filtered water was one industry that was recognized, in view of its corresponding nature to the current drink portfolio. This industry had been recognized as Ã¢â¬Ëof interestÃ¢â¬â¢ in the ABLÃ¢â¬â¢s first vital survey in 2005. Around then the market was considered excessively little and unsophisticated. Be that as it may, the Australia filtered water fabricating industry has developed essentially since this underlying survey. Dwyer has mentioned a point by point survey to decide if section into the local filtered water fabricating industry is presently a practical key choice. Whenever considered to be a reasonable vital alternative, Dwyer additionally needs a proposal whether the ABL ought to enter the business by building up its own tasks or by focusing on a current contender for obtaining so as to increase prompt piece of the pie. B. The Australian filtered water fabricating industry 1 Bottled water is the quickest developing class in the non-mixed drink showcase in Australia, with deals income of $1. 483 billion of every 2009. The significant portions of the business incorporate packaged still and shimmering water. Inside these two portions, diverse bundling sizes and types are advertised. Water can be bought in a scope of single or multi-serve bottles including 600 milliliter, 1 liter or 5 liter jugs from the grocery store or accommodation store. Filtered water is likewise accessible in mass packs (that is: 10 liters or more noteworthy) for water coolers for home or office use. Various kinds of water likewise exist, from normally sourced shining mineral waters to filtered 2 and forte waters. Assembling offices for refined water are commonly situated in closeness to significant water utility providers to limit the vehicle good ways from the water source to the filtration plant. Interestingly, most shimmering mineral water fabricating plants are fundamentally packed in closeness to great mineral springs where the item is packaged at source, as a rule in territorial areas. The massive and moderately low estimation of the item just as the significant expenses of transport imply that the assembling and appropriation plants should be found where there are significant populace places. The Australian filtered water producing industry is as of now in a development stage. Development has been accomplished because of the expansion in per capita utilization of filtered water, though from a generally low base contrasted and other progressively settled drinks. As shoppers become more wellbeing cognizant and change their drinking propensities from CSDs to more advantageous refreshments, filtered water would progressively turn into their beverage of decision. 1 2 All figures are for the year finished 31 December except if in any case expressed. Cleansed water will be water that has been created by refining, deionization, switch assimilation or other reasonable procedures. Page 1 of 21 thus, deals of filtered water are relied upon to increment. Of specific noteworthiness in the business has been the enormous number of new items that have been propelled and acknowledged by customers since 2005, making filtered water a dynamic and quickly developing industry. 1. Development of the Australian filtered water producing industry 3 A generally new industry, the Australian filtered water fabricating industry advanced out of the soda pop assembling industry during the 1990s. Sodas are those that don't contain liquor. Sodas are recognized from hard drinksÃ¢â¬beverages, for example, refined spirits, brew or wineÃ¢â¬by the straightforward truth that they don't contain liquor. Given filtered water is a class inside the more extensive non-mixed drink industry, patterns affecting this more extensive industry likewise sway on filtered water. All out non-mixed refreshment income in Australia was over $10 billion out of 2009, including CSDs, filtered water, natural product juices, caffeinated drinks, sports drinks 4, prepared to drink teas and milk drinks. Table 1 shows the piece of the pie of filtered water inside non-mixed refreshments in the course of recent years and anticipated piece of the pie to 2014. Table 1: Australian non-mixed refreshments Ã¢â¬ piece of the pie of volume by classification 1999 to 2014 Category Diet CSDs Full calorie CSDs Bottled Water Milk Drinks* Fruit Drinks** Sports Drinks Ready to Drink Tea/Coffee Energy Drinks Total non-mixed Beverages 1999 16. 70% 46. 10% 62. 80% 6. 40% 8. 20% 20. 70% 1. half 0. 40% 0. 00% 2004 16. half 41. 30% 57. 80% 9. half 9. 60% 18. 80% 2. 20% 1. 70% 0. 40% 2009 16. 30% 34. 70% 51. 00% 13. 30% 11. 90% 16. 90% 3. 70% 2. 00% 1. 20% 2014 (P) 16. 10% 25. 30% 41. 40% 17. 40% 16. 00% 14. 80% 5. 0% 2. 90% 2. half 100. 00% 100. 00% 100. 00% 100. 00% P = Projection * Includes white and enhanced full fat, skim and soy milk refreshments ** Includes organic product squeeze and natural product drinks Australians expended 963 million liters of filtered water in 2009. Notwithstanding, Australia utilization of filtered water is fundamentally lower as contrasted and the all out utilization of the best 10 worldwide filtered water expending nations. Table 2 shows AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s per capita utilization contrasted and that of the most noteworthy utilization per capita nations on the planet. When contrasted with comparative markets, for example, the United States, Italy, France and Spain, this information recommends that the Australian market has potential for a higher pace of utilization and deals development before it arrives at development. It should be noted, in any case, that the drivers for filtered water utilization can vary. The atmosphere or absence of clean drinking water impacts on utilization levels in nations, for example, Mexico and the United Arab Emirates. Notwithstanding, in Italy, France and Austria, for instance, utilization of jug water is driven by design. An ongoing report by the Global Earth Policy Institute reasoned that worldwide utilization of filtered water rose 56. 8 percent to 164 billion liters from 2005 to 2009. Table 2: Global filtered water utilization: Liters per capita Ã¢â¬ 2005 and 2009 Country Italy Mexico United Arab Emirates France Spain Germany Switzerland United States Australia Global Average 2005 170. 3 128. 7 120. 7 129. 0 112. 0 110. 8 99. 1 70. 0 35. 3 17. 9 2009 202. 0 185. 4 179. 9 155. 8 140. 3 137. 4 109. 5 89. 6 45. 5 26. 6 Total % Change 18. 6% 44. 1% 49. 0% 20. 8% 25. 2% 24. 0% 10. 5% 28. 0% 28. 9% 48. 6% Projection figures for the business were given by industry specialists at the ongoing Bottled Water Institute of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Future FocusÃ¢â¬ meeting. Drink intended to help competitors rehydrate, just as recharge electrolytes, sugar and different supplements, which can be drained after arduous preparing or rivalry. 4 3 Page 2 of 21 Table 3 contains utilization measurements of filtered water in Australia, demonstrating genuine utilization for as long as seven years and anticipated utilization for the following six years. Table 3: Australian filtered water utilization, 2003 to 2015 2003 605 30. 6 2004 677 33. 8 2005 715 35. 3 2006 765 37. 2007 825 39. 9 Consumption million liters Consumption for each capita (liters) 2008 906 43. 3 2009 963 45. 5 2010 (P) 1024 48. 0 2011 (P) 1089 50. 5 2012 (P) 1159 53. 3 2013 (P) 1235 56. 3 2014 (P) 1316 59. 4 2015 (P) 1398 62. 4 P = Projection Table 4 shows all out industry income in the course of recent years and anticipated income for the following six years for the Australia filtered water fabricating industry, contrasted with that of non-mixed drinks altogether. Recorded development in filtered water has been gotten from increments in all out utilization, helped along by solid client acknowledgment of new items propelled in the course of recent years. The expansion in the all out Australian populace along with an expansion in per capita utilization of filtered water has added to this chronicled development. (Contrasted and other created markets, be that as it may, development in the Australian market has been accomplished from a moderately low base).
Political theory short answers-Africa - Essay Example Basic modifications coordinated towards Africa by the IMF, respective contributors and the World Bank are a portion of the approaches to arrive at solidification (Herbst 51). As per Samuel P. Huntington, it is strict and social characters that will basically raise strain and struggle in the realm of post-Cold War. Huntington closed this in the wake of reviewing different speculations relating the method of worldwide governmental issues. He contended that the possibility of various civic establishments is vital to examining the chance of contention (Herbst 45). Civic establishments contrast from one another as far as language, culture, history, religion and convention. This has potential for strife. Huntington gave a critical motto with respect to Islamic religion which has upset erosion in the western world. It is the Ã¢â¬Å"Islam has grisly bordersÃ¢â¬ trademark that gets dread his contentions. Huntington presumes that every single Asian nation and other Islamic country are on the whole harmony haters. The western will meet up and solidify their capacity to guarantee their inclinations remain. The Islamic countries will also merge and challenge the force and estimations of the West. The western world has had sway incredible effect on the planet developments. To stay applicable, they need to solidify their military force and battle for their inclinations and qualities (Herbst 67). As indicated by Huntington, the West assumes a basic job in impacting the political and strict foundations in Africa. The West consequently decides the soundness and of the social developments exercises of these
Friday, August 21, 2020
Learning and ability the executives in an association - Research Paper Example Learning and ability the executives are two of them. They fuse high significance into the associations and their exhibition relies upon these territories prominently. With headways of various kinds, and associations moving into worldwide gatherings and chains, the field of ability and learning the board has held more ground than any time in recent memory since these two zones sway the presentation in an immediate way. Association in general comprises of unit of individuals, exercises, capacities, chain of importance, devices and procedures and machinery(Cannon and McGee 2010). Anyway the best possible working of the previously mentioned elements and elements is to a great extent subject to the executives and their appropriate working which is generally guaranteed with the assistance of human asset association and office. The significance of Human Resource Management: Human assets have assumed a fundamental job in each time, anyway in current occasions, they have gotten the foundation of successful working and execution of an association, the umbrella of human asset the board is very dispersed and involves numerous elements that are straightforwardly affecting the presentation of association( Sims, 2002). The two of these are the learning the executives and the ability the board. These advanced patterns are quick received and even the little scope association that work in various pieces of the world, target guaranteeing and consolidating the components and components of human asset the board. Their suggestion falls upon different branches of association too and with so much worldwide activities and practical offices, the viability can be upgraded on numerous occasions with the utilization of ability and learning management(Collings and Scullion 2011). In such circumstances no association can envision enduring and exceeding expectations among the contenders who have utilized these methods just as others for adequacy and efficiency. The flexibly chain system, the presentation of innovation and different progressions generally speaking have made it indispensable for associations and organizations to set up ability the executives segments. These two zones can be fused into the limits of H.R (Human Resource) and thus it very well may be said that with the approach of these two zones, the H.R standards and departmental working has fortified in equal. These two can be named as the advanced period presence of human asset association (reference). Ability the board: It is the association and overseeing of the ability regarding the staff. Its extension involves the individuals who come new to the association, the individuals who are as of now enlisted. The effect of ability the board is multi folds; it has an effect on the people as well as the association and the way wherein it works. It realizes straightforwardness and proficient working techniques in the association with no preference and inclinations in dynamic. Ability the executives fills in as an autonomous division and discipline and has its ordinary individuals, the top administration, the people associated with leading meetings, the eyewitnesses, the individuals who settle on choices and the individuals who are engaged with other participatory procedures (Hatum, 2010). In pasts the authoritative achievement were to a great extent identified with assets, the arrangements and different factors, anyway in present day times if there is any factor that exceeds others, that will be that of staff and people associated with the association. Winston Churchill quite a while in the past anticipated and expressed that in times ahead, the significant choices (Kolarevic 2003), triumphs regarding associations and generally speaking exhibitions in various different backgrounds and foundations would be to a great extent subject to the psyches and capacities of people. While in past they were being overlooked or their jobs were
Monday, August 10, 2020
Things to do if Youre Alone for the Weekend Left Alone at School For The Weekend? Try These Fun Activities Left Alone at School For The Weekend? Try These Fun Activities In a study of Canadian university students last year, nearly 66% of participants reported that they feel lonely during the school year. When your roommates and floormates go home for the weekend, leaving you alone in a different city, itâs easy to see why. However, there are plenty of things to do on the weekend if you open your mind to new adventures. Kick the Weekend Loneliness With These Fun Ideas Your days off school are meant for you to relax, take time for yourself, and have some fun. Here are 5 things to do on the weekend that donât require anyone else but you. By the time youâre done, youâll forget you were ever bored in the first place. 1. Explore Your City Sometimes the best way to go sightseeing or exploring is on your own. You donât have to rely on other peoplesâ plans, interests, or accommodations. Additionally, you donât need to please anyone but yourself. If youâve gone away to school in a brand new city, thereâs going to be tons to see and do. Put on some comfortable shoes, do a little Google research before you go, and get out there! 2. Look Out For Extra Curricular School Events To combat the high rate of loneliness among students, some Canadian universities have begun to implement activities and programs after school and on weekends. These programs range from âfield tripsâ to bowling outings, and even sightseeing tours in some of the major cities. It can be intimidating to go to one of these events on your own. However, the good news is that your school is filled with thousands of students who are probably going through the same thing you are, and are more than willing to make new friends. 3. Join a Club If your school doesnât have many organized trips or outings to choose from, theyâll definitely have a ton of clubs you could join. Visit your student center to get more information, or go on your schoolâs website to check out the options. Pick something that relates to your interests and join. This is also a great way to make new friends! 4. Take on a Part Time Job Obviously you canât just pick up a part time job for one weekend, but if you find that youâre experiencing recurring feelings of loneliness, this could be something to help alleviate the issue. Not only will you earn extra cash, but youâll gain new skills and work experience that can help you in the future, even if itâs just a part-time cashier job. 5. Give Yourself Some Me-Time The importance of taking time to yourself should never be overlooked. Give yourself a spa weekend, order yourself some of your favourite take-out, or have a movie marathon with all of your favourite flicks. Hereâs the best part- you wonât need to worry about arguing with others over movie choices! Focusing too much on your giant piles of homework wonât help you combat the feeling of loneliness. In fact, itâll probably make you feel worse. Homework Help Global provides custom academic services that can help lower your workload, so you can go out and enjoy your social life. Donât let stress build up and take control of your life- let us help you make it easy. References: Beaudette, T. (2016, Sept. 9). Nearly 70% of university students battle loneliness during school year, survey says. Retrieved from university-loneliness-back-to-school-1.3753653 Things to do if Youre Alone for the Weekend Left Alone at School For The Weekend? Try These Fun Activities Left Alone at School For The Weekend? Try These Fun Activities In a study of Canadian university students last year, nearly 66% of participants reported that they feel lonely during the school year. When your roommates and floormates go home for the weekend, leaving you alone in a different city, itâs easy to see why. However, there are plenty of things to do on the weekend if you open your mind to new adventures. Kick the Weekend Loneliness With These Fun Ideas Your days off school are meant for you to relax, take time for yourself, and have some fun. Here are 5 things to do on the weekend that donât require anyone else but you. By the time youâre done, youâll forget you were ever bored in the first place. 1. Explore Your City Sometimes the best way to go sightseeing or exploring is on your own. You donât have to rely on other peoplesâ plans, interests, or accommodations. Additionally, you donât need to please anyone but yourself. If youâve gone away to school in a brand new city, thereâs going to be tons to see and do. Put on some comfortable shoes, do a little Google research before you go, and get out there! 2. Look Out For Extra Curricular School Events To combat the high rate of loneliness among students, some Canadian universities have begun to implement activities and programs after school and on weekends. These programs range from âfield tripsâ to bowling outings, and even sightseeing tours in some of the major cities. It can be intimidating to go to one of these events on your own. However, the good news is that your school is filled with thousands of students who are probably going through the same thing you are, and are more than willing to make new friends. 3. Join a Club If your school doesnât have many organized trips or outings to choose from, theyâll definitely have a ton of clubs you could join. Visit your student center to get more information, or go on your schoolâs website to check out the options. Pick something that relates to your interests and join. This is also a great way to make new friends! 4. Take on a Part Time Job Obviously you canât just pick up a part time job for one weekend, but if you find that youâre experiencing recurring feelings of loneliness, this could be something to help alleviate the issue. Not only will you earn extra cash, but youâll gain new skills and work experience that can help you in the future, even if itâs just a part-time cashier job. 5. Give Yourself Some Me-Time The importance of taking time to yourself should never be overlooked. Give yourself a spa weekend, order yourself some of your favourite take-out, or have a movie marathon with all of your favourite flicks. Hereâs the best part- you wonât need to worry about arguing with others over movie choices! Focusing too much on your giant piles of homework wonât help you combat the feeling of loneliness. In fact, itâll probably make you feel worse. Homework Help Global provides custom academic services that can help lower your workload, so you can go out and enjoy your social life. Donât let stress build up and take control of your life- let us help you make it easy. References: Beaudette, T. (2016, Sept. 9). Nearly 70% of university students battle loneliness during school year, survey says. Retrieved from university-loneliness-back-to-school-1.3753653
Wednesday, June 24, 2020
Many academic studies have tried to offer an explanation to why people engage in entrepreneurial activities and what factors influence individuals to decide to become entrepreneurs. The answers range from individual characteristics like genetic reasons (Nocolaou et al., 2008), the possession of balanced skills (Lazear, 2005), psychological and personality traces (Zhao and Seibert, 2006) to environmental factors like institutional settings (Aldrich and Fiol, 1994), geographic inertia created from social embeddedness (Sorensen and Sorensen, 2003) and the industry structure (Glaeser et al, 2009). Acknowledging those differences Thornton (1999) suggests that the entrepreneurship literature can be classified into two distinct schools: one called supply-side perspective and the other demand-side perspective and even though both are concerned about the same phenomena they use different approaches. According to Thornton, while the first is focused on the individual characteristic s of entrepreneurs, the second is concerned with the influence of the contextual factors on the creation or restriction of entrepreneurial behaviors. A careful and impartial analysis of the arguments presented by the different theoretical trends leads to the conclusion that it is not possible to isolate a single concept able to cover all different individual and environmental dimensions described in the entrepreneurship literature. In doing so researchers have behaved like the proverbial blind men trying to describe an elephant, with some concepts treating entrepreneurs like ropes, others like threes and still others like snakes (Carland and Carland, 2004). Thus, in order to have a full picture, or at least a better one, of the entrepreneurship phenomena it is advisable the use of more than one analytical level (e.g., individual and environmental). For example, while the founding of a firm may be understood as an act heavily dependent on the individual entrepreneur, as would be sugg ested by a supply-side approach, it is also very clear that a single individual is very unlikely to successfully mobilize without the necessary infrastructure, as suggested by the demand-side perspective (Thornton, 1999). This way, even though the isolation of specific factors can offer an efficient alternative to advance the entrepreneurship literature, it is important to keep open the possibility for the use of integrative frameworks. Venkataraman (1997) points out that the main concerns observed in the entrepreneurship literature has been clustered on three points: (1) How and why opportunities for the creation of goods and services arise in an economy (entrepreneurial opportunities); (2) How and Why some individuals are able to discover and exploit these opportunities while others cannot or do not, and, (3) what are the economic and social outcomes of an entrepreneurial act (for both the society and the individual entrepreneur). Trying to follow an integrative approach some a uthors (e.g., Venkataraman, 1997; Shane, 2000; Chiles et al., 2007) suggest that the Austrian Tradition offers a comprehensive view that fits well with the different dimensions that encompass the entrepreneurship phenomenon. Notably two of the strongest contributions emerging from that theoretical school are Schumpeter and Kirzner (Chiles et al., 2007). Following the ideas of those theorists organizational scholars developed two different, but deeply correlated perspectives. The first is based on the Schumpeterian tradition and sees entrepreneurs as innovative and creative individuals that disrupt the economic order through a process that Schumpeter describes as creative destruction. And the second, following Kirzner, considers entrepreneurs as individuals who discover opportunities emerging from incorrectness and disequilibrium conditions and exploit them by moving the market toward an equilibrium condition (even though the equilibrium is never reached). Surprisingly, it is possibl e to observe a supplementary nature between those two perspectives, since the Schumpeterian entrepreneur would be the cause of disruption in the economic system that consequently will generate market failures, while the Kirznerian entrepreneur makes corrections (by acting entrepreneurially and taking advantage of market failures) and drives the economy to converge toward equilibrium again, creating suitable conditions for a new disruption (Chiles et al., 2007). The paragraphs that follow will try to discuss how those approaches can be used to consider and analyze issues regarding entrepreneurship. Following many of the assumption found in the Austrian School, Shane (2000) starts his approach to explain how and why entrepreneurs exist by describing entrepreneurial opportunities as opportunities for bringing into existence goods, services, raw materials and organizing methods that allow outputs to be sold by a price superior to their production costs. Moreover, according to him, th e existence of market failures and information asymmetry are some of the two main determinants for the existence of entrepreneurial opportunities in an economy. The presence of market failures implies that resources are being misallocated and not put into their best use (Casson, 1982) and therefore there are possibilities for reorganization or creation of new ways for their use (an entrepreneurial act) (Cantner et al., 2007). A simple example of market failure that could generate an entrepreneurial opportunity would be the case of some unattended demands caused by a misalignment between the demand and supply for a specific good; in this case entrepreneurs would be inclined to enter this market and expand the offer (of the good in question) by means of satisfying the consumers needs and use the opportunity to generate and appropriate profit. Regarding the influence that information asymmetry has on the creation of opportunities for entrepreneurs, it is possible to infer that if all i ndividuals had the same level of information (about market conditions and characteristics) at the same point in time (perfect information) they would be more likely to recognize the same opportunities and consequently would end up competing on price (those that decided to take advantage of that opportunity), what would reduce the incentives that individuals have to become entrepreneurs. Supporting this perspective Kaish and Gilad (1991) argue that entrepreneurs are opportunistic learners that act combining the search for information (opportunities) with the opportunistic reactions to chance events. This way, according to this perspective the presence of information asymmetry and the existence of market failures are critical determinants for the existence of entrepreneurial opportunities and therefore the very existence of entrepreneurs. The arguments above are only concerned with contextual explanations (present in the environment) while individual reasons were not discussed, whi ch at the very best produces an incomplete approach. In order to have a more comprehensive perspective Shane (2000) also concentrated his arguments on the fact that individuals are not equally likely to discover the same entrepreneurial opportunities. He tried to explain why individuals become entrepreneurs by suggesting that the possession of idiosyncratic information allows people to see particular opportunities that others cannot see. Considering that individuals have different stocks of knowledge formed from professional experiences, academic background, socio-economic context and situations that people pass over their lives, each individual is expected to be more likely to find certain opportunities and unlikely to find others. An important moderator present in the relationship between the discovery of opportunities and the possession of idiosyncratic knowledge is the very nature of the knowledge accumulated by an individual, since a person is more likely to find an opportunity to become an entrepreneur in areas related to the ones he already possess knowledge about. For example, an individual with an academic degree and professional experience in engineering will be more likely to identify an opportunity (originated from a market failure) to offer a product or service in areas related with building and construction instead of entertainment. Supporting this perspective, Cohen and Levinthal (1990) claim that in order to enter a new market it is necessary to overcome knowledge-based barriers since to access those markets it is first necessary to recognize and interpret new external information. Consequently, prior knowledge represents an important selection mechanism for what individuals will be able to identify and take advantages of emerging opportunities. A whole picture of this perspective could be described as differences in idiosyncratic knowledge among individuals as the driver of the likelihood that one person will identify a market failure (entrepr eneurial opportunity) that others are not able to; this condition will be enhanced by the existence of information asymmetry. A relevant point that emerges from the arguments above is the fact that characteristics like genetics or personality traces are not among the reasons to explain why some individuals become entrepreneurs while others do not. In fact it seems that this theoretical trend tends to refuse or neglect the arguments that individual characteristics, other than the possession of idiosyncratic knowledge, can explain the existence of entrepreneurial acts. On the other hand, following the Schumpeterian tradition, it is possible to observe a description of situations in which entrepreneurs do not necessarily start their activities based on a market failure. Those situations are likely to be observed when an entrepreneurial act is associated with the creation of a completely novel good, new method of production, new market, new source of supply andor a new form of indust ry organization (Schumpeter, 1934, p. 66). While entrepreneurs that build their activities on a market failure are more likely to be found in ordinary and existing markets, this second type of entrepreneur is associated with completely new ideas, concepts and acts of creativity. The definition of entrepreneur proposed by Schumpeter can be easily linked to this second type of individuals described here. According to Schumpeter . . . the function of entrepreneurs is to reform or revolutionize the pattern of production by exploiting an invention or, more generally, an untried technological possibility for producing a new commodity or producing an old one in a new way, by opening up a new source of supply of materials or a new outlet for products, by reorganizing an industry and so on (p. 132). Going deep in the description offered by Schumpeter it is possible to observe that despite the fact that the starting point for an entrepreneurial activity was not a market failure; the expected outcome of an entrepreneurial act is indissociable from the destruction of the established economic order, which acts moving the economy away from the steady state. Therefore, the theoretical evidences support that if entrepreneurs do not originate from market failures they are very likely to lead the economic system to a situation of disequilibrium. An interesting point regarding this theoretical trend is the sharply divergences from Kirzner, since the Schumpeterian entrepreneur is described as a heroic figure who will create and introduce revolutionary combinations into the market (Chiles et al., 2007), considered by Schumpeter as differentiated individuals when compared to the whole society. Additionally, considering the magnitude of the impact that an entrepreneurial outcome generate in the economy, according to this perspective entrepreneurs have necessarily to be individuals rarely found, or at least the outcomes originating from an entrepreneur cannot be ordinary happenings, other way the economic system would be driven into situation of complete chaos (by the effect of a continuous process of creative destruction). An important issue that emerges from the analyses above is the fact that even though innovations have been extensively described as the key function of entrepreneurship, empirical evidences give contradictory results. While it is very tempting to describe entrepreneurs as very creative individuals able to revolutionize the economic system, Singer (1990) argues that entrepreneurial acts can be classified in a continuum that ranges from completely new and innovative to the replication of existing products, services and process. In fact, most of the innovations inserted into the market are heavily based (if not all innovations) on ideas and items already invented, and despite of the lack of originality those products and services can be considered the vast majority of what is brought into the market by entrepreneurs. Shane (2008) gives a goo d picture of this fact by describing what he calls the the myth of entrepreneurship. Shane gives four important evidences: 1- Individuals who change jobs more often or who are unemployed are more likely to open their own business, configuring what Block and Sandner (2009) describe as necessity entrepreneurs, characteristic that does not match with the heroic individual; 2- Around 35 to 40 percent of all business started in US each year are concentrated on construction, retail and professional services, which historically are characterized by the low rate of creation of new products, services or organizational forms; 3- Individuals are more likely to start their own companies in poorer and agricultural places than in richer and more industrialized places, which interestingly suggest that entrepreneurs are more likely to emerge in environments with more scarce resources (This is not the case for some specific sectors like software or biotech, but in more traditional and ordinary ones that seems to be); and finally 4- Considering the percentage of the working-age population it was possible to observe that, in 2002, around 30% of the Turkish individuals, 18% of Spaniards, 10% of Germanys, 8% of Danish and 7% of Americans were self-employed, and the results are even more interesting in pointing out that as much as 40% of the US population will be self-employed at some point of their life. Additionally, it is also possible to observe that each year in the US more people starting their own business than getting married or have children (Shane, 2008, p. 3). Those evidences indicate that entrepreneurs are not very rare individuals with special characteristics, but are very present in the day to day activities of the economy. Although the empirical evidences described above seem to give support to the arguments proposed by authors like Venkataraman (1997), Shane (2000), Chiles et al., (2007) and Cantner et al., al (2007) the attempt to explain why some individuals be come entrepreneurs solely based on market failures, information asymmetry and prior knowledge presents some limitations. The most notably one is the lack of efforts to incorporate alternative explanations that are not necessarily competing ones, but complementary. For example, the argument that the individuals with prior and related knowledge are the most likely ones to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities is not necessarily contradicted by the existence of genetic predispositions, balanced skills or psychological traces. While the possession of prior knowledge gives an individual great part of the necessary conditions to take advantage or not of an opportunity, it is necessary to explain why some individuals decide to take advantage of it and why others decide not to do that. In the end the ultimate analytical question relies on the decision, since an individual can always choose not to become an entrepreneur even possessing all the necessary conditions. Moreover, the assumption t hat a person will always exploit any entrepreneurial opportunity that he/she can identify is highly unrealistic. Additionally, a similar logic can also be applied to the environmental and contextual factors that influence the emergence of entrepreneurs, since the explanations presented here do not provide a more comprehensive description for what industry, institutional or regional settings and conditions can favor or hinge the emergence entrepreneurial opportunities. This way, trying to offer a more realistic framework, the analyses that follow will adopt part of the Austrian tradition assumptions as a baseline to build on and integrate it with complementary explanations.